© 2020 NeuroRx, Inc.

*These drugs are investigational and not approved by the US FDA


Combination Treatment


Scientific rationale supports the approach of combining an NMDA antagonist, such as D-cycloserine, with additional therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of Bipolar Depression in patients with Acute Suicidal Ideation/Behavior (ASIB). This is crucial due to the fact that despite the substantial promise shown by D-cycloserine in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia, the treatment must be administered with an antipsychotic to counteract certain potential side effects.


5-HT2a Receptor Antagonist

One key potential combination target that has shown promise in counteracting the side effects of

D-cycloserine is the 5-HT2a receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor and a member of the serotonin family.  It is known for its role in mediating certain antipsychotic drugs. Studies have demonstrated that deceased suicidal and other depressed patients have had more 5-HT2a receptors than normal patients, indicating that the increased presence of 5-HT2a receptors may play a role in depression.


Lurasidone (Latuda®), a 5-HT2a antagonist, is currently approved as an antipsychotic and for bipolar depression. However, in animal akathisia studies, it was discovered that lurasidone and other 5-HT2a antagonists have an unexpected synergistic effect with D-cycloserine, potentially enhancing the antidepressant effect while minimizing the potential psychomimetic side effects.


The synergistic effects of NMDA and 5-HT2a antagonists in the rat akathisia model are described in detail in several US and ex-US patent filings.  The combination of lurasidone (and other 5HT2a antagonists) and D-cycloserine led to a significant reduction in akathisia compared to control and to lurasidone alone.  Akathisia is defined as a state of agitation, distress, and restlessness that is an occasional side-effect of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs.



The inclusion of ketamine, an FDA-approved anesthetic, in a combination treatment for acute suicidal crisis in bipolar depression is also supported by scientific research. Like D-cycloserine, ketamine works by targeting the NMDA receptor.  Clinical research has demonstrated that by blocking the NMDA channel, ketamine rapidly reduces depression and suicidality in people with bipolar disorder.


Despite these promising clinical findings, ketamine is not FDA-approved for the treatment of bipolar depression or the reduction of suicidality.  Ketamine's antidepressant/anti-suicidal activity is short-lived. Treatment of bipolar depression in patients with ASIB would therefore require repeat infusions of ketamine. However, ketamine administration is associated with hallucinations and other psychomimetic side effects, and could require 1-2 weekly visits of the patient to a treatment center.


Investigational Sequential Drug Treatment Regimen

NeuroRx believes that, if approved, its investigational, sequential treatment regimen consisting of

  1. single induction of NRX-100 (ketamine),
  2. followed by daily, oral NRX-101 (fixed-dose combination of D-cycloserine and lurasidone),

may offer patients a rapid-onset antidepressant/anti-suicidal effect (NRX-100), potentially maintained by an oral, outpatient therapy (NRX-101).







NeuroRx is investigating a strategic combination treatment approach

based on scientific rationale that supports pairing an NMDA antagonist with

additional mechanisms to address acute suicidality that may be present when treating patients with Bipolar Depression, or other psychiatric disorders such as PTSD and Major Depressive Disorder